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房企认知细化板块表现迥异 去库存仍是楼市重头戏

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 房地产市场中存在销售和投资等各种“分化” (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

房产企业“金九”不再“金”:增收不增利现象凸显

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

The Meyerowitz Stories
信任感依然会是商业领域中唯一且最关键的问题。
He had been stranded for five hours by the time help arrived.
adj. 透视的
The slower acceleration also tracks with trends in real estate investment, which felt a (slight) bite from property purchasing curbs in top-tier cities last month as nation-wide sales also decelerated in both volume and value terms.
[.m?ni'fest?u]
n. 批准,认可,同意,赞同

The data measure how successful alumni have been in their career in terms of salary, seniority and achievements since graduating.
The work of Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapley has sparked a "flourishing field of research" and helped improve the performance of many markets, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
China has all long and continues to support a united, prosperous and stable European Union, support a strong Euro, and support European integration process. We believe that is good for globalization, for a multipolar world and for diversity of civilizations. We feel optimistic about the future of the EU and the future of China-EU relations.
今年最佳的季中交易早已发生了:
该声明称,EPIC绝不容忍任何人的欺骗或者侵犯版权的行为,不管他的年龄有多大。

Footnotes

  • 人民日报:方便面榨菜“逆袭”不等于消费降级
  • 在你面试应聘者的时候,有些人得分较高,你认为应该他能得到这份工作,但是招聘主管却改掉分数,招那些他喜欢的人。

信息技术是第三大行业,有18个入围品牌。上榜IT品牌的总价值占到了榜单的22.5%.平均价值上升了10%。北京是IT行业总部的首选位置,有12个上榜IT品牌的总部设在这里。
Comic skit “Dance If You Like” (Cai Ming and Pan Changjiang)
第三步 练习古怪表情
This was the biggest monthly drop in imports since last September and also means shipments have contracted year-on-year for the past 15 months straight.
“I was quite sceptical initially in doing an online course but the communication and online interaction were perfect,” says one graduate from AGSM.
经济学家表示,香港住宅市场和商业地产市场都将受到一些相同因素的损害:中国增长放缓、人民币贬值、中国内地反腐以及美国低利率环境将走向终结的预期。然而,住宅市场的发展还受到一个额外因素的阻碍,即2012年政府为减少香港房地产市场上的投机活动而出台的“降温”措施。

建材家居业海外转移和对外投资已成趋势

References

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