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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Yes, pensions for retirees at state and municipal levels are preventing recovery. Corporate pensions are also a big problem, widening America's inequality gap: Drug company McKesson's CEO has been boss for 14 years, but will retire with a $159 million pension, while the income of America's average wage earner has stagnated for 30 years.

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根据中国海关总署(General Administration of Customs)发布的数据,12月份以美元计的出口额同比减少6.1%至2094.2亿美元。这一跌幅比经济学家预期的中数多了2.1个百分点,也大于11月份修正后1.6%的跌幅(修正前该数字为增长0.1%)。
苹果(Apple)本周将考验客户的忠诚度、购买力以及对创新的热情,发布第一款售价高达1000美元的iPhone。
So what does 2015 portend? Here are some educated guesses.

But I expect other banks to follow suit. Any effort to keep good people fresh and engaged, without paying them more, should be up for consideration.
vt. (烹饪时把鱼
我的预感是到了3月份,今年的应考新秀们就会看起来很棒,并且会远比去年要好,去年是近几年来最不被看好的一年。新奥尔良和华盛顿都需要一个明确的方向,并且他们不久就会做出各自的选择。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

消费者时常陷入窘境 家居行业服务有待提升

5. Starbucks. Brand love: 26% / Social Business Index Rank: 26
5. bedazzled / a . 眼花缭乱的。
Sounds like Taylor Swift—but, in fact, it’s her frequent competitor, Katy Perry. Largely because of her Prismatic World Tour, which is now winding down, Perry pulled in $135 million this year. She grossed more than $2 million per city over the course of 126 shows in our scoring period, and added to her total through deals with Coty, Claire’s and Covergirl.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

1. 新闻记者
9. 组建自己的“一流团队”。
CareerCast.com, a career website owned by Adicio Inc., ranked 200 jobs from best to worst based on five criteria: physical demands, work environment, income, stress, and hiring outlook. The firm used data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and other government agencies to determine the rankings. As in prior years, the 200 jobs were selected for their relevance in the current labor market as well as the availability of reliable data.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 12月份以美元计的进口同比增长3.1%至1686亿美元,而上个月修正后的增幅为4.7%(修正前为6.7%)。这一增长幅度大致符合3%预期中数。
  • 浅析我国当下家居建材市场的发展现状
  • 鉴于计算机编程被冠以“美国经济中尚未开垦的处女地”称号,纽约编程及设计学院正在努力让“谈论”代码变得更简单。到2020年,美国市场上将会有150万个计算机科学相关岗位,而计算机科学专业毕业生则仅有40万人。此外,计算机科学相关岗位在全美的平均增长率是其他职位的两倍。但是如果你并没有计算机科学专业学位,也没有计划重返校园又该如何呢?纽约编程及设计学院通过提供夜校课程和密集型研讨会的方式正在令学习网络设计和开发变得简单——从该项目毕业后,创建一家全新的网站,或是着手寻找技术相关的职位,并不是什么稀罕的事情。正如创始人杰瑞米?司乃帕(Jeremy Snepar)所言,在当下的数字化经济中,你不能不懂得怎样编程。他将编程看做是一种技术能力,一种能够也应该以更为简单的方式学习的能力,而纽约编程及设计学院正是为那些曾经感慨过“如果我懂怎样编程就好了”的人填补了一个重要的空白。
  • 多项目仍成交平平 杭州楼市正经历价格筑底期
  • 百万房补千万巨奖 珠三角湾区城市全球揽才
  • But McGowan has slammed the movement as 'bull****' in today's Sunday Times Magazine, which comes the day after Judge Brett Kavanaugh was sworn in as a Supreme Court justice in the face of historic sexual assault allegations he denies.
    许多邦德电影主题曲听起来像酒吧表演歌曲。这不是抱怨,仅仅只是观察。无论出于何种原因,英国热门乐团杜兰杜兰发挥自身才能,为电影《雷霆杀机》创作了这首歌。曲调新颖,振奋人心。《雷霆杀机》是一首即使不依靠邦德电影也能成功的主打歌曲。歌曲轻松愉悦、活力四射,暗含一段令人沉醉的美好时光。(至于电影是否恰如歌曲讲述的那样尚有争议。)

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 热点城市房租上涨怪长租公寓?专家:长租公寓不背锅, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

原云南红塔集团董事长、褚橙创始人褚时健去世

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

统计局:楼市调控取得成效 风险也得到初步控制

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • On Sunday, the night before the Doodle debuted, Zhang told Newsday she was "excited" by the big win, but said she wouldn't be awake when her art first went online at midnight.
    inspect(vt 检查;视察)根:spect看
  • Walt Disney Pictures and Lucasfilm have promised a Star Wars film every winter after the release of Star Wars: The Force Awakens. These movies will be spin-offs to the main films.
    2015年,紧随中国票房收入之后的是英国的19亿美元、日本的18亿美元、印度的16亿美元以及韩国的15亿美元。
    201512/415505.shtmlBritish business schools shine in the 2015 Financial Times ranking of European institutions. Not only has London Business School (LBS) kept its crown as the best business school in Europe but three other schools in Britain have achieved the biggest rises since last year.
    In the episode "The Little Kicks," we get to see Elaine's fabulously hilarious dance moves. It's almost impossible to imagine a version of Seinfeld in which Elaine doesn't dance in such a funky way. And yet shockingly, this was almost the case. Writer Spike Fereston knew that series creator Larry David was against the dance, and he was only able to get it approved after David left. He was able to get the dance approve, but still received a lot of push back from the other writers.
    Meme-sharing Facebook groups have become a new college tradition, Mic reported last week, with students across the country trading inside jokes and fighting battles with rival universities via screenshot and caption.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • LED电商成本并不低 实现盈利是一场持久战
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 温州家具品牌“内冷外热”

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

vi. 抱怨,悲叹,控诉
纳米比亚的货币几年来一直对许多其他货币贬值,为其他国家的旅客前来旅游提供了便利条件。最便宜的航班一般会避开南非和欧洲学校的放假时间,尤其是十二月末和一月份。
非常感谢Aicha Nezzar在脸谱—--世界英语论坛上为我们分享这篇佳作。
The difficulty of arranging visas for the large contingent of students from outside the EEA partly explains why UK schools performed disproportionally poorly in terms of international course experience, with 14 schools ranked in the bottom half of this criterion.
尽管销量大幅增长让人欢欣雀跃,但它并不是汽车业今年最重大的新闻。底特律先是因为通用汽车公司(General Motors)提拔玛丽?芭拉出任汽车业首位女性首席执行官而欢欣鼓舞;紧接着,福特汽车(Ford)首席执行官艾伦?穆拉利在重回波音公司还是加入微软公司(Microsoft)两者间犹豫不决之际,它又紧张得大气都不敢喘。传统的三巨头抱怨现有产能已挖掘到极限,开始制订扩张和聘用新人的计划。特斯拉公司(Tesla)让电动汽车的销量火了一把,而且不肯按行规出牌;而同时谷歌公司(Google)则在自动汽车研制上一马当先。
赢家:湖人
在1991年至2010年之间,癌症死亡率显著下降了20%,这比过去十年下降总和的10%还要多。总有一天,我们会跟癌症说再见。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 1. Apple
  • 7月59城新房成交面积下滑 三四线城市跌幅最大
  • China's economic prowess is also seen by outsiders as having stimulated nationalism in a generation removed from the Cultural Revolution. Beijing's belligerent responses to overlapping maritime claims have heightened worries about its security objectives in a region already wary of its economic clout. This is one factor in Japan's decision to relax its ban on weapons exports; to China's dismay, it has also driven its neighbours to support a stronger US presence in Asia and has complicated regional trade integration.
    For once, the Lakers are in good spot and don't have to rush into anything. Take some time. See what they have. They're not making the playoffs with that defense, but that's not really the point of this season anyway.
  • 11月份70个大中城市中一线城市房价环比下降
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Denmark, for instance, is 88 percent white Danish today — hardly a majority in jeopardy. But a generation ago, in 1980, it was 97 percent white. The anti-immigrant Danish People’s Party is now the second-largest party in the Danish Parliament. In Germany, where the foreign-born population shot up by approximately 75 percent between 2011 and 2015, the anti-immigrant, populist Alternative for Germany party is now drawing record support.
    不会。华尔街策略师预测美国政府的10年期借贷成本将在未来一年攀升至3%以上,这话就像尴尬的办公室聚会一样是圣诞节那段时间的固定节目。鉴于美联储退出量化宽松和美国减税,今年的预测看起来更有可能实现。然而,压低通胀和长期债券收益率的长期重大因素依然存在,并且仍然被低估。2018年美联储将至少加息三次,但10年期收益率不会突破3%。
  • But a friend saw a TV report about it and contacted the sorting office. Mr Siddeeq, 74, says he is still eager to read it, despite now being divorced。
    The findings of the US and UK scientists are based on thousands of global temperature measurements taken daily on land and at sea.
  • 客户通过Twitter 和Faceboo向世界传播“糟糕经历”的能力已经改变了客服世界的生态。尼尔森公司(Nielsen)2012年的一项调查显示,超过一半的客户现在通过社交媒体寻求补救措施;与此同时,在Twitter上提出问题或抱怨后,大约81%的用户提出当天就能获得回应。但在今年秋天,事情变得更加有趣:9月2日,英国航空公司(British Airways)乘客赛义德?哈桑斥资大约1,000美元,购买了几条“推广消息”,猛烈抨击这家航空公司弄丢了他的行李。鉴于有偿社交媒体推广现已成为客户的新武器,从2014年开始,各大航空公司、信用卡公司、银行和其他累犯提供的糟糕透顶的客户服务或将走向终结。无穷无尽的电话等待时间和那些自动化的“电话树”(比如,“英语服务请按1,西班牙语服务请按2,您整整一个下午都需要等候接听请按3”)或许将被扔入历史的垃圾桶。
    Build the armed forces through political work and reform, and run them by law
  • Jackie Chan, a kung fu star and a member of the CPPCC National Committee, raised his experiences about smoking bans in China and Singapore as an example. During a business trip, his colleagues still smoked after a warning from a security guard in Zhuhai, Guangdong province, but they didn't dare smoke when they arrived in Singapore because "it was strict about smoking there".
    As well as diversity, Mr Cook has championed sustainability and supply-chain transparency, including a commitment to reducing Apple’s use of conflict minerals. While hyper-efficient under Mr Cook’s management before he became chief executive, Apple’s supply chain has not always been something to boast about, with recurring complaints about working conditions.
    今年的榜单包括三款涡轮增压柴油发动机,但这一点可能引来争议,尤其考虑到柴油在美国的普及程度低于欧洲;在欧洲,柴油引擎已经成为发动机话题的主角。这是第一次有超过两款柴油动力引擎跻身十大榜单,并且讽刺的是,其中这两款引擎均来自于美国国内汽车生产商,包括当前美国国内唯一一款全尺寸半吨皮卡Ram 1500所使用的引擎。
  • Earlier on Tuesday Mr Rutte had issued a call for calm in the dispute with Turkey.
    The shortage of supply-chain talent explains why 48% of U.S. companies plan to snap up logistics grads in 2011, according to a new survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 6月三线城市房价上涨势头得到抑制 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

地王频现拉响楼市警报 限购等政策或将多地上演

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

返乡置业逆袭北上广 一线城市楼市开春遇冷

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

详解瓷砖经销商的九种修炼境界

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

油漆工的春节回家路

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Chinese imports fell 18.8 per cent in October from the same month a year earlier, a slight improvement from the 20.4 per cent year-on-year fall in September. Sharply lower prices of oil and other commodities also helped scythe the bill.
  • Such highlighted talents also include cult director David Lynch of the United States and the versatile Taiwan filmmaker Sylvia Chang, whose representative works are on the recommended lineup.
  • 宜和宜美引领互联网全屋软装定制“新玩法”

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • check
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • You are supposed to enjoy life, not be stressed out all the time. If you spend most of your days stressed about everything that going on at work, you are not at the right job.
    5.Effective decision makers
    玛蒂的知名度如此之高,以致于她在Topshop(服饰店)被尖叫的青少年粉丝们围堵了,小粉丝们激动地要求和偶像自拍合影,这对于玛蒂来说有点难以适应。
  • Extreme heat blanketed Alaska and much of the western United States last year. Records were set across large areas of every inhabited continent. And the ocean surface was unusually warm virtually everywhere except near Antarctica, the scientists said, providing the energy that fueled damaging Pacific storms.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Song “Embrace Happiness”(Kelly Chen)
  • 2014收官之际 沈城家居市场打出新战术
  • 喜剧类最佳女配角:凯特?麦金侬(Kate McKinnon),《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 国家统计局:房地产行业普增普涨阶段已结束
  • Household substance abuse
  • 中国成最大木材进口国 美国木材在中国畅销
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

天津部分银行下调首套房贷利率

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 钢价暴涨昙花一现 钢企一季度扭亏依然艰难
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 交银国际:老百姓对不动产投资意愿止跌回升
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

An EMBA also boosts corporate careers. “The skills I acquired were key to my promotion,” said one graduate. A fifth are now chief executives, managing directors or board members three years after graduation. Average salaries were up 52 per cent from $114,000 before the programme to $175,000 five years later.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

社交名媛卡戴珊8月份参加凯莉·詹娜的19岁生日聚会时,笨手笨脚从跑车出来的方式让她不小心走光太多了。
1. Am I taking care of myself? Sometimes we get so wrapped up in taking care of others that we forget to take care of ourselves. It can be so easy to leave ourselves behind.
它被广泛误解为一部关于小说家大卫·福斯特·华莱士(David Foster Wallace)的传记电影,其实庞索特的这部影片是一部关于新闻的坏方法的喜剧,以及对文学名誉机制充满了解的辛酸讽刺。杰西·艾森伯格(Jesse Eisenberg)与杰森·西格尔(Jason Segel)使用“男人老友电影”(buddy movie)的传统方式,完美地呈现出一个新的子类:亦敌亦友电影。
Yang Yansui, director of the School of Public Policy And Management at Tsinghua University, said the four-trillion-pension balance was mostly in personal accounts, while the pay-as-you-go pension system was greatly challenged by dependency ratio.
Wishing you all the blessings of a beautiful season.愿你拥有美丽的新年所有的祝福。
Average age: 37
US schools are rebuilding their strength in this ranking, with their number increasing to 51. This had dropped below 50 for the first time in 2016, down to 47. Six of the eight new or returning schools are from the US.
5. The top 300bureaucrats will rally behind Xi’s reforms and these bold new programs, backingthe central government while bringing these ambitions to their provincialgovernments and setting parallel growth goals at home. Detailed plans forreform and accelerated growth will be set, and then promptly executed, ingeographies across China. We expect the tier three and four markets torally again this year, growing faster than tier one and two cities.
我们将尚未生长成型的水果放进模子里。
6. Cutting Down on Saturated Fats Could Preserve Your Memory

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

LED行业专利诉讼不断 行业巨头纷纷交叉授权

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • ['t?]
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 对两者而言,反对派是敌人而非观点不同的同胞。
  • 政策扶持下LED照明需求增长可期
  • Meanwhile, a salesman from online travel company Tuniu Corp told the Financial Times that it had on Friday “removed all tours to South Korea due to the Thaad issue”. A search for South Korean tours on the website returns the message: “Sorry, we have not found a relevant product.”
  • 实木柜体成为橱衣柜市场未来十年将迎来的“风口”
  • CANCER: THE EMPEROR OF ALL MALADIES (PBS, March 30) Barak Goodman (“Scottsboro: An American Tragedy,” “My Lai”) is the director and Ken Burns is an executive producer of this six-hour series based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning book “The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer” by Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 传统家居建材市场萎缩:向智能化转型或是行业必经之路
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 8. 精彩出演)的艺术觉醒与性觉醒,欲望令她长大成人。
  • Jackie Chan, a kung fu star and a member of the CPPCC National Committee, raised his experiences about smoking bans in China and Singapore as an example. During a business trip, his colleagues still smoked after a warning from a security guard in Zhuhai, Guangdong province, but they didn't dare smoke when they arrived in Singapore because "it was strict about smoking there".

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

房企整体观望情绪浓厚 2018年土地流标率创近年新低

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